Australasian Multiple Sclerosis Network of Care Multiple Sclerosis Network of Care Australia

A Voice for People Affected by MS


 
Effective Brain Functioning

CCSVI Australia

'Proper Sleep is Essential' TurnOnthe Tap
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Sleep Abstracts News Headlines What is Multiple Sclerosis?  Quick Reference Guide
       
 
PROPER SLEEP  IS ESSENTIAL FOR EFFECTIVE  BRAIN FUNCTIONING  - THE MS RELATED SCIENCE IS NOW COMING TO HAND  
On 17 October 2013 BBC News reported on research at the University of Rochester Medical Centre whereby the effective functioning of the brain's "waste removal system" is believed to be one of the fundamental reasons for sleep.  
About the sleep cycle Researchers also suggest that failing to clear away some toxic proteins may play a role in brain disorders. Their study showed brain cells shrink during sleep to open up the gaps between neurons and allow fluid to wash the brain clean. Watch a video on this topic.
 
"The brain only has limited energy at its disposal and it appears that it must choose between two different functional states - awake and aware or asleep and cleaning up. Cells in the brain, probably the lial cells which keep nerve cells alive, shrink during sleep. This increases the size of the interstitial space, the gaps between brain tissue, allowing more fluid to be pumped in and wash the toxins away," said researcher Dr Maiken Nedergaard.  
THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE GLYMPHATEC SYSTEM  
These findings build on last year's discovery of the brain's own network of plumbing pipes - known as the glymphatic system - which carry waste material out of the brain. Scientists, who imaged the brains of mice, showed that the glymphatic system became 10-times more active when the mice were asleep. Dr Nedergaard said this was a "vital" function for staying alive, but did not appear to be possible while the mind was awake.  
She added that the true significance of the findings would be known only after human studies, but doing similar experiments in an MRI machine would be relatively easy. Dr Nedergaard work on this topic became the winner of the 2014 Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). This annual award recognizes the author or authors of an outstanding paper published in the journal Science.  
Commenting on the research Dr Neil Stanley, an independent sleep expert, said: "This is a very interesting study that shows sleep is essential downtime to do some housekeeping to flush out neurotoxins. There is good data on memory and learning, the psychological reason for sleep. But this is the actual physical and chemical reason for sleep, something is happening which is important."

Dr Raphaelle Winsky-Sommerer, a lecturer in sleep at Surrey University, said: "It's not surprising, our whole physiology is changing during sleep. The novelty is the role of the interstitial space, but I think it's an added piece of the puzzle not the whole mechanism. The significance is that, yet again, it shows sleep may contribute to the restoration of brain cell function and may have protective effects."
 
OPENING NEW AVENUES FOR INVESTIGATION  
Many conditions which lead to the loss of brain cells such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease are characterised by the build-up of damaged proteins in the brain. The researchers suggest that problems with the brain's cleaning mechanism may contribute to such diseases, but caution more research is needed. Alzheimer's Research UK said more research would be needed to see whether damage to the brain's waste clearance system could lead to diseases like dementia, but the findings offered a "potential new avenue for investigation".  
STUNNING DISCOVERY ABOUT THE BRAINS  LYMPHATIC DRAINING SYSTEM  
June 2015 highlighted the stunning discovery by researchers at University of Virginia School of Medicine that overturns decades of textbook teaching, It is now known that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist. Described as ''very well hidden” they follow a major blood vessel down into the sinuses, an area difficult to image.  
Discovered were functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses that expressed all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The discovery may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.. Researchers said ''It changes entirely the way we perceive the neuro-immune interaction'' - find out more..  
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS ASSOCIATIONS  
In an earlier study (September 2013) scientists at the University of Wisconsin, Madison discovered that sleep allows the body to reinforce the production of myelin, which provides insulation for the brain’s neuronal wiring. Study researchers said their findings could lead to new insights into brain repair and multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease marked by chronic myelin damage.  
In the study, the researchers recorded genetic activity in myelin-producing oligodendrocyte cells from mice that either slept normally or were forced to stay awake. While the genes promoting myelin formation were observed to activate during sleep, the genes associated with cell death and cellular stress were switched on when the rodents stayed awake. In fact, the production rate of immature oligodendrocytes doubled as mice slept, researchers said.
 
The production increase was most significant during REM sleep, which is associated with dreaming. The research team said their findings indicate that sleep loss might worsen some symptoms of MS as the disease causes the body’s immune system to attack myelin in the brain and spinal cord.  
In September 2014 research published in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine found that sleep disorders, which are more common among people with MS, are often left undiagnosed and untreated. Left untreated, sleep disorders could affect the progression of the disease, as well as affect people's overall well-being, the study authors cautioned. A large percentage of the 2,400 MS subjects in the study were sleep deprived and screened positive for one or more sleep disorders, Researchers said "the vast majority of these sleep disorders are potentially undiagnosed and untreated. This work suggests that patients with MS may have sleep disorders requiring independent diagnosis and management"  
LOOKING DEEPER  
This emerging knowledge is consistent with developments since late 2009 whereby problems associated the drainage of deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart were shown to contribute to many of the most common symptoms associated with MS. On 17 October 2013, when commenting on these new developments, Joan Beal a leading global CCSVI advocate said "A few years ago, I first wrote about REM sleep and brain oxygenation. After venoplasty and restoration of jugular, rather than collateral venous flow,  my husband Jeff had a return of dreaming and restful sleep.  Now that his jugular veins had been repaired, they were the major route of venous return for his brain while he slept, and the changes for him were immense and immediate".

In April 2015, when reporting on her subsequent meeting with Dr Nedergaard, Joan said ''there appears to be a connection between the demyelinating patterns of MS and the glymphatic system.  And any slow down in venous flow when the body is supine, as we see in CCSVI, would certainly be impacting the body's ability to cleanse the brain during sleep, as these metabolites and toxins are eventually swept out into the venous blood'' - read more about this meeting.
 
On 25 October 2013, Kerri Cassidy, from CCSVI Australia, said "this is important information for people with CCSVI". Kerri went on to say "whilst the brain can drain through numerous venous pathways when upright, blood is drained primarily through the jugulars during sleep or when supine - a significant concern for those with impaired jugular drainage.  This cleaning of the brain whilst sleeping has been related to myelin repair and it is possible that these toxins may prompt an inflammatory immune response within the brain such as is seen in Multiple Sclerosis - given that MS presents in each individual in varied ways it is likely there are different contributing factors in the disease process".  
THE BLOOD FLOW ROLES OF JUGULAR AND VERTEBRAL VEINS  
Jugular veins are used predominantly when we lie down - when we are upright blood is drained more through the vertebral veins. Sleeping position are therefore very important to blood flow in our brain especially as related to potential CCSVI conditions. That is why some may find some head positions impossible to tolerate - more about vascular comorbidities and MS  
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS  
This new knowledge is also consistent with beliefs about strong associations between bacterial infections and some neurologically based conditions. In this regard the team at CCSVI Australia are following a number of developments outside the existing autoimmune paradigm of Multiple Sclerosis.  
BEYOND ENTRENCHED BENCHMARKS  
It has long been recognised that a multi-disciplined approach to MS care works best. What we are now seeing is the emergence of disciplines largely unrelated to historically based conventional "MS wisdom"  - and good things are beginning to happen.  
   
 

 

 


  Facts Sheet RM1246MS

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